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Ancillary Equipment We continue our series of articles on the art of receiving, with an examination of the benefits and pitfalls afforded by ancillary equipment. Reduced to its lowest terms, reception of broad- devices and strongly suspected that they were cast stations requires nothing more than a suit- not remotely worth the asking price.
Nowadays able receiver. In the case of a portable, such as we would not even consider attempting to set up those discussed on page 22 of this edition of a new antenna without one; it has become WRTH, we have a single box which contains absolutely indispensable for a wide variety of jobs. The most obvi- considerations and in most cases the audio from. Adding a decent-quality external speak- position. It will undoubtedly consist of an internal er is one of the most cost-effective enhance- ferrite rod for LW ments to a receiving and MW, perhaps in system, and will conjunction with have an immediate some form of tele- and dramatic effect scopic 'whip' for the in reducing listening higher frequencies.
Unfortu- Both are compro- nately it may also mises; they work immediately reveal well enough for some shortcomings reception of consis- in the audio amplifi-. We have usual problems encountered. In some cases it discussed antennas a good deal in earlier edi- may be possible to add an external amplifier dri- tions of WRTH and make no apology whatsoever ven from a line-level output, which again is likely for asserting yet again that they are by far the to bring about a marked improvement.
Many most important part of any radio receiving instal- receiver manufacturers make external 'add-on' lation. The finest and most expensive receiver speakers for their products, and in our experience ever made will not work well it is fed from a few if these range from being somewhere between very feet of wire, whereas an experienced user will good and horrible. Our strong advice is to try wring miracles out of a modest receiver coupled before you buy, if at all possible.
In recent years there has been a tendency. These are usually analyser. To those brought up on noise bridges, sold as accessories by radio outlets, most of impedance meters, Smith charts and similar which seem to make inordinately extravagant impedimenta, the ability of the modern micro- claims for the level of performance produced by processor-controlled portable analyser such as particular units.
Our experience is that these the MFJ or to provide a formidable items do not represent good value for money for amount of information literally at the flick of a the short-wave broadcast listener although they switch is quite astonishing. These units can make might well find a use in amateur stations.
The rea- it almost child's play to set up even a complex son is that adaptive speakers tend to be extreme- multiband antenna and match it to its feeder in a ly adept at nulling-out heterodynes and assorted. We freely confess that before tuning-up noises, and such an ability can prove we reviewed the MFJ some years ago for remarkably useful at times on the amateur bands.
WRTH, we were extremely sceptical of these However, strong heterodynes are not commonly. So all in all, it a much more pleasant experience. These items seems to us that adaptive speakers need not be tend to have responses that are curtailed at low very high on the shopping-list of the short-wave and high frequencies and have a degree of 'tai- broadcast listener. In general terms we take the loring' in the mid-band to enhance intelligibility. They should also dis-. We all have dimensioned differently headphones.
All too often taken for granted, heads and strong personal preferences for how headphones are arguably one of the most vital 'tight' the headphones should feel on the ears. The Ideally the earpieces should be laterally and ver- reason is that they act as the principal interface adjustable for comfort. A related issue is tically. Some people cannot tolerate feeling cut excluding extraneous noise.
So their electrical offfrom the outside world by earpieces with a performance, com- high degree of fort and acoustic acoustic isolation insulation proper- usually by snugly ties are all worth fitting seals whilst consideration. Unfortunately this is prices. These tend to be very well made and give far from being the case because your high-grade excellent performance. Our personal favourite is stereo headphones are likely to have an excellent the 'Airlite 62' originally made for UK military and frequency response extending to both ends of the civil-aviation applications but now tending to be AF spectrum.
This will allow them to reproduce displaced favour of noise-cancelling types. It is in. Many and rewire the connecting cable to suit your par- mains-powered receivers have some degree of ticular receiver's connector, after which you are low-level hum in the output. This originates in the left with a rugged and reliable headset whose power supply and is related to the mains fre- frequency response is beautifully tailored to com- quency. The internal speaker may well not have munications-quality speech and which is very enough low-frequency response to reproduce the comfortable when worn for long periods.
The able a headset with an extended frequency in main reason this is necessary - or at least very response. Hum and hiss are very fatiguing to lis- useful - is that a receiver is designed with an ten to for any length of time. To make matters input impedance at its antenna input terminal worse, the distortion characteristics of the simple which is quite low and constant over the bands it integrated-circuit power amplifiers commonly covers,whereas the impedance of the vast used in receivers are such that they also tend to majorityof antennas apart from specifically be rather hard on the ears when experienced via broadband types, such as the log-periodic or dis- wide-range headphones.
The usual consequence cone varies widely with frequency. This is espe- of any or all of these issues is that headphone lis- cially the case with random-length long wires, tening becomes something we do not much enjoy which are apt to display highly reactive i. Ancillary Equipment FEATURES inductive or very capacitative impedances that broadcast transmitter or has a radio-amateur are nowhere near that of the receiver to which neighbour.
Equally, it is easy enough to incorpo- they are connected. For maximum power transfer rate a switchable attenuator into the preselector from the antenna to the receiver to take place, the and done in commercial items. Some this is often antenna impedance needs to be transformed to a units, such as the MFJC reviewed on page value which is at least close to that of the receiv- 28, also embody broadband preamplifiers.
These er. This is usually done by means of a preselec- can be valuable if one happens to be using an tor, which acts as a species of continuously vari- older receiver which is perhaps a little short of able transformer. In effect, this can be considered sensitivity, especially at the higher frequencies. Our strong recom- which a approximately matches that of the mendation is that if you purchase a preselector receiver and b is chiefly resistive.
Using a prese- containing an RF preamplifier, make sure it can lector with a random-wire antenna can bring be switched out of circuit. Incidentally, if you are considering the pur- Unfortunately many modern commercial prese- chase of a preselector or ATU, there is no need to lectors do not have earth ground terminals, pre- opt for the large and expensive items made for sumably for the good reason that injudicious the amateur radio market.
These are of course earthing can in certain circumstances cause arranged to be capable of matching the ama- problems and in extremis result in a very real teur's transmitter to the antenna as well as the hazard of electric shock to the incautious user. ATUs for receive- In particular, some only applications disappointment can can be very much ensue if operating a smaller and less non-earthed prese- elaborate. Having lector in conjunction said that, the aver- with a long-wire age amateur-type antenna and a ATU probably will.
For those with a little almost all incorporate one or more variable experience and the willingness to look for suitable capacitors together with an inductor fitted with parts, a preselector can also represent an easy suitable switched taps. More expensive examples introduction to the world of home construction. A balanced antenna is fed via 'home-brewing' you will need a soldering iron and some form of flat line, usually open-wire feeder or the requisite skills to use it.
Actually you will prob- ribbon. The advantages and disadvantages of ably need one anyway, only because you are if. If you always use a good. By virtue of the properties of circuits embody- good job every time. That said, the PL or ing capacitors and inductors, most preselectors UHF connector taxes most of us since it seems to willsimultaneously act as either high-pass or low- have been primarily designed as a wickedly diffi- pass filters.
This makes them very useful for cult test for those who have to fit them. If you can rejection of strong out-of-band signals, especially reliably terminate coaxial cable with a PL if the user happens to live near a high-power plug, you need no advice on soldering. The S is the perfect addition to active lifestyles that demand high-performance portable audio capable of receiving news and information from across the globe.
These can also be useful for casual listening, International Radio and TV services; and finally but in either case can help to identify a station by Reference where miscellaneous information covering frequency - whereupon further details can be obtained wider aspects of broadcasting can be found. It is however important to flickingforward to the relevant location. Once there, you then only have to flick forward a few pages to locate It courteous to enclose return postage when is.
Alternatively you can use the writing to small domestic broadcasters. This can be in country index at the back of the book, which will tell you the form of an International Reply Coupon IRC the precise page number. In all cases, when writing used to the alphabetical layout, you will probably find that to radio stations you must write clearly.
Remember, the if. DG: Sefedin Cela. Personnel Dir. DirApostal Noti, Dir. Radio- Tirana: Martin Leka. S 50 Tirane 50 1. What has changed since then? MS: Good question; the answer is yes and no. MS: Quite a lot. At that time there were four annu- The BBC is still reducing HF transmitter hours al schedules, which made life very difficult at overall, but we keep the sites very busy with non- times.
In the s there were moves to intro- BBC services. The only real growth business in. So Having said that, the BBC broadcasts in a lot. It's it. Many had split up, it became possible to think in terms of the mainstream European language services of much better co-ordination and flexibility. We all have gone but there are lots of new ones and tend to talk to each other much more often and very much more rebroadcasting than there used more freely than we did in the old days. Albanian is new, as is Ukrainian.
MS: We own four. All these are the medium-wave site at Orfordness. Nowadays on rebroadcast FM, of course. Actually, some of we tend to think of all three HF sites as being them come and go. What tends to happen is that more or less completely interchangeable, the service gets started and then something goes although DRM is only on from Rampisham at pre- wrong; the transmitter breaks, or something. Then sent. The BBC I my phone rings and someone says "can you get owns the sites in Cyprus, Ascension, Seychelles, us going on shortwave by tomorrow please?
Let's we look after them for the BBC. There are two questions to ask initially. Secondly, how reliable do you want the service to MS: Daventry was really a general-purpose site. If it's to be provided at low cost, we're talking Rampisham was built to cover Eastern Europe about a single frequency out of the UK.
You also and Russia. Skelton was organised for Western need to think about the time of day. Will it be early Europe and North Africa. Woofferton was mostly morning or late evening, when it's dark in the UK? A transmission from the looking at Eastern Europe. Daventry had a bit of UK to Iran will be two hops, and we really want to. Some receivers are connected way to provide an unreliable service.
Depending up telephone lines; the organisations in the to on what the customer wants, we might recom- HFCC host them. But mostly we rely on a com- mend moving the proposed time a couple of mercially available service. In essence this is a hours either way to make an all-dark or all-light it receiver and computer connected to the internet. Generally speaking, if it's an all-dark path We dial it up and tell the receiver what to listen to you're going to be looking at 6, 7 or 9MHz.
If it's and when. The computer stores the audio, and daylight, we're going to be thinking in terms of 13, from time to time sends us an e-mail with the it. But we can also look at what else results. We still need people to listen to and give it. On what they hear an SIO score, so it isn't the com- that basis we might go as low as 1 1 MHz or as puter that evaluates the results; it's a human. But high as 21 MHz in daylight. Having done that, we all this means we don't have to have people lis-. And we can compare samples issues.
If go to a co-ordination conference and I from various places, or listen to samples one propose a new frequency that puts a hop down in after another. Europe right in the middle of prime time, my col- WRTH: Will the HF broadcasting spectrum shrink leagues will probably tell me not to be silly. And in or grow? Iranian prime time there will be an awful lot of MS: Well, the pressure from broadcasters is still transmitters which are much closer to the service there.
HF broadcasting is nowadays the main area than mine in the UK and which will be activity on short wave, and our bands are still putting in much louder signals. So I'm going to generally over-used. If the broadcaster has a little more money to very little teleprinting, not a lot of fax or point-to- spend, we can look at sites that are a bit closer. Lots of broadcasters and transmitter-site opera- MS: That's true. In general terms HF is a lot less tors have opened up their facilities to other users.
But again, those users We can buy or barter time for our customers. They hang on to their Let's take the case of an religious broadcaster old allocations as back-up. The other big present- who wants to put on a service to the Far East and day user is still aviation, with all the long-distance who is a customer of ours.
We can set up an SSB traffic. We could up some of it. But the broadcasters will certainly exchange transmitter time at Skelton for time keep the pressure on. Skelton and our religious broadcast would go out MS: No, because in some situations nothing can of their site. We also have three-way models replace it.
In tropical regions, for example, or in along the same lines. All in all, the world's trans- very large countries, there's no viable alternative. Different routes and differ- MS: It's early days yet. Lots of people are push- ent areas of coverage require a few different ing for and from a technical and engineering it,.
It's easy enough to add to it it. If more a modern transmitter the modulator is good if. In the short term, my guess up and running. Do reception reports still matter? Very much so. However, there's no reason at the whole business of providing a service is a man- all why DRM and analogue can't co-exist, given. How am the will of the spectrum managers to co-ordinate I doing?
Was successful? This is working well, I frequencies. I am sure we will. Mike a frequency management consultant. Still is to do to make it work? We can't evaluate the He had a long and distinguished career with the results of what we do without good feedback. You BBC's Schedule Unit, where he was responsible probably remember that we used to rely on peo- for frequency planning and management in the ple turning on their radios and sending in reports.
External Services. He moved to VT Communi- All very useful, but nowadays it's much more cations when the BBC's transmitter network was automated and mechanised, more reliable if you privatised in the s. Thanks to the internet, we can have receivers. Only 4. With its large LCD screen and simple operation, the ability to tune-in. Imagine a radio packed with all the bells and whistles: digi- tal tuning AM, FM, Shortwave reception, and small enough to fit into your coat pocket.
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Headquarters Via B. Digital Radio Update A round-up of what has been happening in the world of digital radio over the past year. Earlier this In the period since last year's edition of WRTH, year the Korean government approved the intro- digital radio in various forms has ceased to be duction of terrestrial DMB broadcasts of televi- tomorrow's technology and has without doubt sion programmes to mobiles, and commercial become today's.
In particular, DAB's time has products are expected to be available by the end arrived with a vengeance. It now appears quite of The service will launch in Korea by the likely that the end of domestic analogue radio end of and will initially include 48 channels broadcasting in the UK will take place in about delivered to consumers free of charge. In principle offers near-CD quality sound, it. It was ease of tuning and interference-free reception for also reported that OFCOM has reached a posi- the listener.
It also offers a vast improvement in. In the UK this is pressure on the radio spectrum is arguably its intended to take place in , and many most important feature. DAB can be transmitted European countries are understood to be work- on frequencies in the existing FM band also ing towards a similar time period.
However, the known as Band and encompassing II. A duced in Europe, Canada and Australia, together major issue, both in the UK and elsewhere in with pilots in India and elsewhere, are using other Europe, is that of additional spectrum allocation frequencies. Some DAB receivers supermarkets and other retail outlets. As this was currently on the market can receive both Band III written, almost 70 different models of DAB receiv- and L-band transmissions although most of the er were on sale worldwide and the audience for current 'portables' are Band III only apart from a the service was about million, with some few some rather expensive units.
The 1 World different DAB services available. A recent inde- Administrative Radio Conference allocated L- pendent report by Eureca Research forecast that band spectrum to both terrestrial and satellite the installed base of DAB receivers in Europe digital broadcasting. In practice, however, it would increase from around , at the end seems likely that Band III will continue to be used of to an astonishing million at the end in some countries for national networks and L-.
The same local stations. Ultimately this will be the position in report also predicted that the market value of the UK as well as other countries. That said, it has been reported that By any standards these are very impres- a consortium including a UK-based commercial sive numbers. Feelgood Pott. There is also a steady rather than spectacular. The essence of free software package known as 'Dream' which DRM is that it is an amalgam of existing digital can be downloaded from www.
Many of the world's major broadcasters hardware modifications. The system actually uses four distinct For many years now it has been possible to modes, known as A, B, C and D. Mode A is receive radio stations from satellites. In Europe intended for use on LW and MW during daylight the 'Sky' constellation - which is principally intended hours and mode B - which is currently used for for television - carries many domestic radio out- most of the test transmissions - is for MW at night lets and are freely receivable as part of the all.
Modes C and D are for tropical subscription package. Other satellites carry radio bands, where most signals are vertical-incidence. In the USA there are two satellite radio The different modes all use quadrature amplitude systems transmitting directly to the end user, both modulation QAM in various combinations of systems having been awarded SDARS Satellite amplitude and phase modulation and bit rate.
XM Satellite Radio launched its services. Both offer over than its proponents have insisted and some very programme channels which are chiefly aimed at strange effects have been heard. It is also the mobile user, and many cars and car radios exceedingly easy to jam. Both satellite operators have reached casting as a supplier of services and what licensing agreements with a large number of appears to be its steady replacement by alterna- vehicle and equipment manufacturers, and tive forms of programme delivery, we still incline indeed at least one very large vehicle maker is a to the view that DRM's future is not necessarily major shareholder in one of the systems.
The guaranteed. As a senior BBC manager said to us channels are divided into 65 music streams, the recently, had DRM been available twenty years majority of which are either commercial-free or ago, its prospects would have looked very different. Sirius uses three satellites in non-geo- from JVC and Panasonic, with others supposed- stationary orbits whereas XM uses two geosta- ly in the pipeline.
However, it is still not clear tionary Model 'birds' referred to by the station whether HD radio has much of a future. They are located over the east and The future for WorldSpace does not look particu- west coasts of the USA and are stated to produce larly promising either.
Both Sirius and XM its output is now encrypted and requires a month-. Although it pro-. Neither XM nor Sirius vides some of the output of the XM satellite sys- transmissions are audible outside the continental tem, now achieving enormous popularity in the US, and indeed their licences do not permit them USA, Noah Samara's original vision of low-cost to provide service elsewhere. A few new receivers have been said extensively sampled Sirius and XM receiving sys- by WorldSpace to have been introduced during tems and have been thoroughly impressed by the last twelve months, but they do not appear to both.
All receivers have to be type-approved by be commercially available. If we had to guess now, we suspect units. Although the Eureka system emerged It seems and XM have a certain that both Sirius very well indeed from laboratory and field tests solidly viablecommercial future.
The opposition is based. We on lack of new spectrum, dislike of sharing trans- mentioned last year that some competition was mitters in the multiplex and concerns that DAB imminent from what is now referred to as 'HD would introduce new competition. This rather an unfortunate contrast with the situation in is the system which was hitherto was known as Canada, where DAB has been very well received.
IBOC in-band on-channel and which allows In recent visits we have again been enormously existing AM and FM stations to transmit their out- impressed by the variety of programming avail- put on existing frequencies in a digital format. There is current- After some and technical hiccups, initial political ly a total of 73 licensed stations, of which fifteen.
Toronto 21 commercial and 4 public 15 in Our experience with HD radio has been limit- Vancouver 11 commercial and 4 public , 12 in ed to several journeys within the coverage area of Montreal 8 commercial and 4 public and 6 in two FM stations, using a Kenwood KTC-HR Windsor 2 commercial and 4 public. These sta- in-car receiver. Certain types of programme material dis- population. Seven stations 4 commercial and 3 played a rather hard and fatiguing quality, possi- public are field-testing in Halifax, Nova Scotia bly due to the low bit-rate a maximum of 96kbps, and a DAB-only station licensed for the Toronto which compares rather unfavourably with the area is scheduled to start operation soon.
Several colleagues have com- that radio broadcasting is inexorably moving mented that the AM variant sounds considerably towards a digital future - certainly for national worse than good-quality analogue, and that is it and domestic services, and possibly for others. When the power fails, Blackout Buddy. Illuminated multi-function blue LCD screen and nightlight Weight: 10oz. Just 90 seconds of cranking provides up to an hour of Built-in Cell Phone Charger, flashlight, and radio play.
Dimensions: 6. International Shortwave bands, and the built-in flashlight. Just 90 seconds of cranking provides up to an hour of radio play. Sunspot Cycle 23 Progress The number of sunspots seen on the face of the conditions expected in each high frequency sun follows an approximate 1 1 -year cycle, from a broadcasting band during When 17 16 4. It Cycle 23 has been slowly declining 11 25 The predicted count for 12 25 This marks the beginning of 9 31 It will continue Night: mid and long-distance, not winter 7 41 Figure 1 graphically plots the progress of on the facing page.
Cycle 23 and its predicted future, against the background of a very active sun. This can This is the 42nd consecutive year that George Jacobs,. With 64 years of centage of the world's HF broadcasting in each experience in the development of governmental and broadcasting band. Usage in the bands above private international broadcasting systems, George is a legend in the field of International Broadcasting. Table 1 is a general summary of the reception.
Band Selections have been made taking into account both propagation conditions and station operating schedules. Where the 6MHz band is showr as the most suitable, also check the 7MHz band and vice versa. World Music Radio Anker Petersen reports on the re-birth of a popular radio station and talks to the man behind the first commercial shortwave station in Denmark. These stations included. This situation continued until band.
These stations were also known as the year They were very manager, DXer, and long-time WRTH contributor, popular, particularly with the young people, Stig Hartvig Nielsen, took over WMR and the firm because of their lively presentation and the fact was officially registered in Denmark. During May that they played all the latest music which was to August the first WMR broadcasts under sometimes ignored by the large, often state-con- his ownership were aired on and kHz trolled,broadcasters.
In fact, they even succeed- via the powerful Sentech transmitters at ed in changing the format of State-run broadcast- Meyerton in South Africa. Although Africa was ers, who were forced by this competition to intro- the main target area, these broadcasts were duce slick announcing with catchy jingles, and heard worldwide. It has been on and 1 kHz and this was finally granted. While the air in with some breaks since In its first the shortwave transmitters were being prepared incarnation it was broadcast from a secret trans- and shipped, new offices and a new on-air studio mitter location in the Netherlands, and was run by were completed in Kousted near Randers in young Theo Verstraeten.
He started off with a Denmark. In April the two transmitters were 10W transmitter but steadily increased it to installed at the village of llskov south of Karup in W. The postal address was in Lancashire, Central Jutland, and were tested successfully England, and was from there received my first it I during May and June. WMR was a great success but all ended on it 24 hours a day. Theo which has been rebuilt for shortwave by a Verstraeten had his equipment confiscated and company in Canada.
Until further notice 6 kW is. We are also featuring music from the past. QSL four decades - so 'oldies' music is an important part of our output. We are playing a lot of Soul, R'n'B and Reggae - but not very much rock "World Munc Radio" thanks you for your reception report which music, and hardly any 'teenage music' with boy- bands, etc. In other words our music format is extremely wide and pretty unique. For four reasons: Firstly, the number of metres. A former naval Siemens transceiver, with DXers is very small.
Second, a DX programme watts of power, is used for the transmissions would mean that non-DXers would switch off their on kHz. This has been rebuilt for broad- radios. Thirdly, DX news and loggings are easily casting and has an ordinary dipole antenna. The available via the Internet. Finally, it would take a programmes are controlled by a computer in lot of time to produce such a programme. Kousted and sent as streaming audio via the internet to the transmitters at llskov.
However, yes we are replying to I. What happened? When the transmitter finally arrived, miles from Denmark day and night, obvi- a new filter had to be built because the transmit- ously with some seasonal variations. At night the ter didn't meet the technical requirements for signals travel even further. Reception in South spurious radiation. America,for instance, has been quite good after AP: Who is your target audience?
The initial test transmissions with low power dark. While we still considering either buying a stronger transmitter want to reach these groups, we also realise that for this frequency or to give it up. It is a well-known fact cially through our FM service and via the Internet. International national stations, so we are aiming at those lis- advertising is almost non-existant so it will be a teners with a broader outlook - those who have an international or global orientation.
Should we succeed in keep- AP: What kind of music are you playing? Some ing the station on the air, am hoping that in I. And begin to take off, we would love to broadcast in really we are not playing a lot of ethnic World DRM as well.
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Radio Taiwan International P. Dimensions: 3"W x 5"H x 1. Please write, email or visit our web site for full details of membership and our other services:. A club for experienced DX-ers worldwide! Become a member now and share your favourite hobby with us! This volume is dedicated to his memory. Bernt joined the Norwegian DX-Listeners' Club in and quickly established himself as an active contributor and club member.
He retained this post from until he died. In this period Bernt was responsible for publishing more than issues of DX-News. He com-. The sheer volume of Bernt's contribution to the club was in itself outstanding, but even more impressive is the quality which was apparent in everything he did. Bernt was very knowledgeable and had contacts among radio stations and hobbyists all over the world. Under his stewardship, DX-News became a highly topical and professional magazine, and his dedicated work has been invaluable in securing a DXLC a loyal membership base.
Bernt also had friends in many countries outside Norway and his name is known to DXers all over the world. He was an active contributor to several other DX-clubs and bulletins - in the Nordic coun- tries, the UK and elsewhere. He supplied relevant news and information from Norway, adding per-. He also took a special interest in off-. Bernt was a country contributor to the WRTH for many years, as well as contributing to various other publications.
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Continental Electronics Radio Taiwan International VT Merlin. DB Elettronica 11 Roberts Deutsche Welle Technosystem Eton Telefunken WRN 7. Monitoring Times France Int Kabul No further details available. L: Dari, Pashto, Turkmen. Uzbek —E. L English — E.
LP: D. G: Mr. Ghulam Rasol Hazrati. H W. Web: www. Prgr Main N: Pashto , Dari PI: kW transmitter. Prgr: Paktia, Gardez: kHz 7kW, Prgr: , 11 KFAR 10 24h Kandahar: kHz 7kW. Prgr , Ghazni: kHz 10kW. Prgr: , Farah: kHz 7kW. Khost kHz 0. Nangarhar, Jalalabad: kHz 0.
Bamiyan: kHz 0. Herat kHz 0. Nimroz, Zaranj: 1 51 8kHz 2kW. Kunar, Asadabad: kHz 0. Helmand, Lashkar Ga kHz 0. Taloqan: Badakhstan, Faizabad: Kabul: Email: radio. Prgr: Sat-Thu. SW: Bagram kHz 1kW. Other stations: R. Faizabad: Also rel. BBC - R. Arman FM, Kabul: Box , Central PO, Kabul.
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