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The final disposition of those materials was not specified. Information in the facility file also describes the disposal of sewage sludge at the site by land application. It is not clear from the information presented whether the site is routinely used for disposal of sewage sludge or if sludge is applied only to aid in revegetation of final cover.

The site reportedly received a total of , gallons of sludge in and , gallons in The only reference to liners is contained in the general conditions of the permit. These conditions require that the deepest landfill excavation be a minimum of 3 feet above the seasonal high groundwater table. An inspection conducted in April , indicated that wastes were being placed in cells directly on top of the existing ground surface. Surface runon and runoff are controlled through the use of diversion ditches and berms.

Temporary berms are used to route all potentially contaminated runoff from active disposal areas to the leachate storage lagoon. Runon from uncontaminated areas is diverted around active disposal areas. No other details of the surface runoff control system were provided. Leachate collection is an important aspect of the facility design. The facility permit requires that all 4eachate and contaminated rain and surface water must be stored through the period from November 1 through May 1 of each year without discharge.

From May 1 through November 1, stored leachate is disposed of by irrigating on adjacent land. The leachate collection system for the site consists of an interceptor trench located downgradient south of the disposal area. Specific design details of the system were not available in the facility file. The storage lagoon originally constructed at the site consisted of a 2. This lagoon did not prove large enough to store leachate during the winter months.

Therefore, in the construction of an additional 25,, gallon, "I" shaped lagoon around the existing facility began. The combined capacity is great enough that irrigation is required only during the summer months. Both lagoons are constructed above grade with dikes made of compacted day soil. The lagoon bottoms are lined with 1 foot of compacted clay soil. A site inspection report prepared in indicated that methane control systems are present at the site.

No details were provided on these systems. The site is operated using a combination of the area-fill and trench-fill methods of disposal. Clay topsoil is excavated from the southwestern part of the site for use as daily and final cover.

The facility permit requires daily cover consisting of at least 6 inches of compacted soil and final cover consisting of at least 2 feet of compacted soil. Or ginally, wood chips were used as daily cover. This practice was stopped because of odor problems. Revegetation of the final cover is apparently enhanced by the application of sewage sludge.

As described above, the lagoon was recently expanded to contain increased leachate flow. The leachate flow measured in was 8,, gallons. The permit requires that groundwater monitoring wells be installed in accordance with specified recommendations. Biannual monitoring must be conducted for pH, alkalinity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand COD , ammonia nitrogen, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen. In , six wells were constructed at the site at the locations shown in Figure 2.

Typical well completion details are shown in Figure 3. The logs of these wells were not available. The completed well depths and depths to groundwater in April , are shown in Table 1. Monitoring data are available for April! Analytes include the required parameters plus temperature, suifate, color, iron, calcium, magnesium, hardness, and total organic carbon TOO.

The most recently available results April , sampling are shown in Table 2. Surface water and leachate sampling are also required at the site. Three surface water sampling stations and one leachate sampling station are maintained, as shown in Figure 2. Since , these stations have been sampled at the same time and for the same analytes as the monitoring wells.

Prior to , the leachate lagoon and Camas Swale Creek were occasionally sampled. The most recently available results April , sampling are shown in Table 3. The groundwater monitoring data presented in Table 2 indicate several parameters in downgradient wells elevated above levels in the background well GW The impact of landfill operations on these levels is not specifically known because there are no comparative background data collected before disposal began.

The environmental impact of elevated levels is not known because the use of shallow groundwater in the area is not described. Location of Monitoring Stations. ACS CK. The surface water monitoring data shown in Table 3 shows essentially no difference between samples taken from the Creek upstream and downstream of the site.

These results are suggestive of minimal impact of landfill operations on surface water quality. S9 45 11 1. WA Contract No. These deposits generally exhibit relatively high permeabilities. No environmental damage has been documented. A permit for operation of the site was issued in December The site is characterized topographically by rolling hills with numerous kettle depressions. Surrounding land use varies from rural agricultural to rural residential residential. Future land use for the area was not specified in the facility file.

The site is located on deep deposits of glacially-derived, unconsolidated sediments consisting predominantly of sandy, glacial till. The depth to groundwater ranges from 40 to feet, depending upon site topography. No navigabte surface waters are located on the property; however, some of the surface water runoff collects locally in kettle holes or infiltrates directly into the subsurface.

Approximately 80, yd? The facility occupies The site design includes a 5-foot thick clay liner a and a leachate collection system. The site will be developed in 4 phases using the area fill method of disposal. The facility operating plan was approved in April, , and construction approved and a permit issued in December, The site is characterized topographically by rolling hills with numerous kettle depressions Figure 1.

The general slope of the land is to the east-southeast. Ground elevations at the disposal site range from 1, feet in the northwest corner to 1, feet in the northeast. Land use surrounding the site varies from rural agriculture to rural residential to residential. The population immediately surrounding the site was not specified in the facility file. The unconsolidated deposits at the site consist mainly of sandy glacial till. The site is mantled in most places by a thin veneer of topsoil ranging from 0 to 1 foot in thickness.

The texture of the topsoil is a silty sand. The sandy till deposits are directly under the topsoil and have been divided into three groups based on grain-size analyses. A brown fine sand, little to some silt and day, little gravel is the upper sand unit over the majority of the site.

The fine sand unit ranges in thickness from 0 to over feet The soil gradations range from 5-IS percent gravel, percent coarse sand, percent medium sand, percent find sand, and percent silt and day. Generally underlying the fine sand is a brown, fine to medium sand, some gravel, little silt and clay. The unit varies in thickness from 0 to over feet The gradations range from percent gravel, percent coarse sand, percent medium sand, percent fine sand, and percent silt and day.

This unit is somewhat coarser than the upper fine sand. Underlying the fine to medium sand is a brown fine to coarse sand, little silt and day, trace to some gravel. The gradations for this unit range from 2 to 40 percent gravel, percent coarse and, percent medium sand, percent fine and percent silt and day.

Bedrock was not encountered in any of the soil borings at the site which ranged up to feet in depth. The glacial drift deposits of northern PC are underlain by Precambrian aged igneous and metamorphic rocks. The rocks are generally impermeable, consisting largely of granite.

Gneiss, schist, shale, greenstone, and quartzite do occur, however, in outcrops in the northern parts of the County. The surface of the Precambrian basement is generally flat, slopping to the south at approximately 10 feet per mile. The depth to groundwater at the site ranges between 40 and feet.

The glacial drift is the major water bearing aquifer in the site vicinity. Areas of clean sand and gravel outwash can yield up to 2, gpm, whereas the most productive wells in the glaciat till yield less than 1, gpm and typically less than gpm. Regional data indicate the presence of a regional groundwater divide to the west of the site as shown in Figure 2. The divide is rather broad in the vicinity of the site.

Plow directions are generally to the south-southeast through the site area. Recharge to the aquifer is predominantly from infiltration of precipitation. Due to the high permeability sands, large volumes of precipitation infiltrate into the subsurface soils. Many of the kettle depressions in the morainal areas collect local surface wter runoff and act as local infiltration basins replenishing groundwater supplies. Groundwater discharges generally occurs along lakes, rivers, and wetlands.

The closest discharge areas to the site are wetland areas to the southeast. A major discharge area for groundwater flowing beneath the site appears to be the Tomorrow River, located several miles to the east The closest well to the landfill site is approximately 1, feet to the north upgradient. The closest downgradient well is approximately 1, feet to the southeast Although high capacity irrigation wells are common in the area, there are none in the immediate vacinity of the site due to the irregular topography i.

The next nearest high capacity well is 2 miles northwest of the site. Neither will is expected to affect grcundwater flow at the site or to be affected by the site. The only on-site surface waters are the areas of ponded waters within the kettle depressions.

Several small wetlands occur to the east of the site area. These wastes include, but are not limited to, garbage, refuse, wood matter, and demolition waste. The site has an approximate year life, with a total refuse capacity of approximately 1,, yd3. The quantity of wastes presently in place was not specified. The site receives no liquid wastes or hazardous wastes. Clay used for constructing the liner is obtained from an off-site source.

The clay soil is required to have at least 50 percent material finer than a No. The layout of the leachate collection system is shown in Figure 3. Collected leachate is hauled to the Sewage Treatment Plant for treatment and disposal. Runon and runoff at the site are controlled by a perimeter drainage flume which discharges to infiltration basins. Rainfall which falls in the active area of the site is captured by the leachate collection system. The feasibility study report for the site describes the installation of a passive gas venting system.

This system is to be installed in gravel trenches which will be constructed in the upper reaches of the landfill prior to closure. No details of the gas venting system were available. The site design also includes the construction of a collection lysimeter beneath the Phase I liner.

The lysimeter consists of a perforated PVC pipe installed in a trench lined with a synthetic membrane. The collection pipe drains to a manhole where leachate is collected. The purpose of the collection lysimeter is to measurei the volume of leachate which passes through the day liner. The facility will be developed in 4 phases using the area fill method of disposal.

The layout of the phases is shown in Figure 4. Phases I through III will have refuse capacities of ,; ; and , yd3, respectively. These phases will have an average fill thickness of approximately 34 feet and a maximum thickness of approximately 60 feet The base of the fill will range from approximately 30 feet below existing grade to approximately 30 feet above existing grade, depending on topography.

Phase IV will cover the entire site area and will be emplaced above the first three phases. Phase IV will have a refuse capacity of , yd3 and an average thickness of approximately 10 feet Refuse will be compacted daily and covered with 6 inches of daily cover. Because of the phased operation, Phase I through III will be covered with an intermediate cover consisting of 2 feet of compacted day and 6 inches of topsoil.

This intermediate cover will then be removed progressively as Phase IV is constructed. The final site grade is shown in Figure 5. Available well locations and the local groundwater flow direction are shown in Figure 6. Typical well construction details are shown in Figure 7.

The results in Table 1 are not indicative of leach ate contamination of groundwater. Plgurt Jb. Major cost elements are reported below on a present worth bases dollars. Scope of mart The scope of work for Phase I Involved collecting three leachate samples at six municipal landfills, and Incinerator ash samples from two sites where such ash Is co-disposed with solid waste. Site selection was based on the existence of a leachate collection system, the accessibility and location of the.

A brief description of each site, containing Information gathered through telephone conversations and field observations and sample location maps Is Included as Attachment A. The duplicates, were collected at the same time and handled 1n the same manner as other leachatt samples; the field blank consisted of HPLC grade water which was preserved and analyzed as a leachate sample.

Changes in the Sccom of Mark Prior to beginning field work the following changes were made In the scope of work: 1. The leachate samples collected from each site would be replicates. If distinct leachates were generated at a given site, they were composited In proportion to the volumes generated. If It was raining or had rained prior to sample collection, a sample would be taken of the rainwater from a clean puddle or depression and analyzed to determine the characteristics of water Infiltrating the waste.

Traditional water chemistry parameters were added to the analyses. Because of the difficulty Involved 1n shipping preservatives, the allquots marked for water chemistry were preserved by the NUS lab. See Attachment C for a complete list of analytical requirements and laboratory Information. Field Operations Sample data Including times, dates, locations, and field measurements are listed In Attachment 0. The following 1s a summary of field operations during the week of February 1, Teaa 1 Denlcc Taylor.

Terry tejahn February 2. February 3. SM-LE- February 4. February 5. SUES February 2. The Resource Recovery facility supervisor also arrived to discuss the sampling plan and to answer any questions. The ash sample was collected from a fresh pile, prior to It being disposed 1n a cell.

All 3 leachate samples were collected from the leachate flow as It entered a collection sump. The samples were collected using an amber glass bottle taped to a pole. The leachate was gray with some turbidity associated with It. The samples took approximately 45 minutes to collect. Once the samples were collected, field measurements of the samples were made and the samples were then preserved, labelled, and packaged for shipment according to the procedures outlined In the scope of work.

The sampling team collected all 3 leachate samples from the lone collection sump. The leachate Is normally pumped from this sump Into a tank truck and hauled to the local Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were collected by lowering a stainless steel beaker on a polypropylene rope Into the leachate that had collected In the collection sump. The leachate was gray with some turbidity associated with 1t. Again, the samples took approximately 45 minutes to collect.

February 6, The sampling team arrived at the NC Landfill at after meeting with the Facility Supervisor at his office. The samples were collected by lowering a stainless steel bailer on a polypropylene rope Into the leachate that had collected at the bottom of each sump. The leachate from the closed area was light gray and almost free of turbidity, while the leachate from the active area ranged from light gray and slightly turbid to black and very turbid.

Figure 1 shows sample locations and site details. The schedule for disposal depends on the amount of rainfall and may range from everyday during wet months to every week and a half during dry months. The sump was being emptied February 2, , the day of sampling; it had last been emptied a week and a half before.

It Is not possible to enter the sump without wearing a breathing apparatus. Samples were collected by lowering a bailer Into the tank. It appears from site plans that the facility has entered Phase II of development. Presently, there are 24 monitoring wells on site which are being sampled quarterly for conventional parameters.

In addition, leachate samples are collected and analyzed once a year. A detailed case study of the site, dated July Is collected In one sump prior to discharge to a two stage lagoon. Figure 2 shows sample locations and site details. An automatic pump empties the sump on average of once an hour during the wetest months and once or twice a day during drier times.

During sampling the sump was emptied twice. In the summer, leachate from the secondary lagoon 1s sprayed over the vegetated area of the fill. About two years ago, a tanker permitted to dispose of glue sludge from the plywood Industry emptied thick black oil Into a manhole draining to the collection sump.

The responsible party was required to remove as much oil as possible at the time, and periodically they are called to remove any additional accumulation. At the time of sample collection, there was at least a one foot layer of oil In the sump. In order to collect a wore representative sample, the samples were collected from the primary lagoon at the discharge point. There was an Irredescent film on the water's surface near the pipe. The site contact also mentioned that there are plans for expanding the capacity of the lagoons.

Six monitoring wells on site are sampled blannually for conventional parameters. Surface water and leachate samples are collected at the same time and are analyzed for the same parameters. It Is unclear if there are two separate secondary lagoons. Surface water Is diverted around the fin to other drainage ways. When the lagoons reach capacity, leachate from the primary lagoon Is pumped and sprayed over the fill.

Leachate from the lower lagoon 1s then pumped to the primary lagoon. A greenish seep was observed flowing from approximately half way downslope to the primary lagoon. The Facility Supervisor later said that the seep formed after an Intermittent spring was covered with fill and that 1t flows only during wet periods.

Figure 3 shows sample location and site details. There are no monitoring wells at this site. A detailed case study, dated June , has been prepared and 1s on file with EPA. The landfill began operation 1n April of. The Deputy Commissioner of Energy Recovery Facility, provided the following numbers In regards to the types of waste disposed 1n the landfill In o tons of ash o tons of bypass refuse materials 1n excess of incinerator's capacity o tons of hardflll metal scrap, building materials, mattresses, etc.

The landfill has 2 clay liners with a leachate collection system above the first Hner. A leak detection system 1s located between the 2 liners with no leaks being reported as of yet. The landfill has no groundwater monitoring system because It Is located next to a hazardous waste site. The hazardous waste site has Its own groundwater monitoring system. The leachate collection system drains Into a collection sump, the leachate Is pumped from there to a holding tank, and flows from the holding tank into the main sewage line.

The NC Landfill The landfill accepts ash from the Resource Recovery facility, calcium nitrite from a local fertilizer manufacturer, and municipal solid waste 1n excess of the Incinerator's capacity. The County Environmental Specialist, estimates the ratio of ash to solid wastes to be 1 to 3. The ash Is used as a dally cover.

The landfill consists of numerous cells. One ten acre cell has been closed and the construction of a clay cap for It has been started. The wastes-are currently being placed 1n a two acre cell. Each cell Is lined with 3 feet of sand, a high density liner, another 2 feet of sand, and a mll PYC liner.

A leachate collection system 1s placed above the first liner of each cell and a leak detection system has been placed between the liners. A groundwater monitoring system Is also 1n place. The leachate. A detailed file on the leachate characteristics from the landfill Is available at the facility. An active dumping area Is pictured In the background. Note the monitoring well to the left of the manhole. R1P3 view of pump house located to the left of the manhole.

R1P4 View of the manhole and discharge station. RIPS Photo of the discharge station. One vent 1s located to the right, Inside the dumping area. R1P6 Additional view of monitoring well, dumping area, and another vent to the left of the manhole. S1P4 Photo of pump house. Inside there Is a manhole access to the collection sump. The steps behind the building lead to the primary lagoon.

Samples SM-LE, , and were collected at this location before the discharge. S1P6 An additional view of the discharge. S1P8 View from the far side of the primary lagoon, looking back at discharge. S1P11 Photo of the spillway from the primary to the secondary lagoon. S1P13 View across the secondary lagoon from the far side of the dividing dike.

The working face of the landfill can be seen to the right In the background. The white pipe In the left background Is part of the aeration treatment system. This view 1s to the left of the pump house. R2P3 Photo showing sampling location lower left , flow from the primary to secondary lagoons, and the pump and pipe for the aeration treatment.

R2P4 Additional view of lagoons, pump and pipe. R2P6 View of source of leachate seep. The blue green puddle 1n the left foreground Is the leachate. R2P7 Photo of drainage path from leachate seep to primary lagoon. The distance Is approximately feet. Description 01 View of the leachate storage tank. The leachate enters the sump from the direction of the upper left hand corner. The black hose 1s for pumping the leachate Into the truck that hauls the leachate to the local wastewater treatment plant.

The punp control box Is In the center of the photo. The Leak Detection Sump 1s to the left of the pump control box. A storm runoff sump 1s 1n the far left side of the photo. Filters that are located to left of the basins are not pictured. The control building Is In the right background portion of the photo. Photo was taken from- the other sump. Leachate collection lagoon Is 1n the right hand portion of the photo. This photo along with the next two photos 19 and 20 are a panoramic view of the lagoons.

Access roads and an unused cell are located between the Inactive and active areas of the landfill. Obvioualy, it ia either physically la- posaible or undesirable to take all of a Maple eouree. Therefore, only a representative portion can be taken. Row this aaaple is taken and handled determines, to a large aeaaure, the quality of the ensuing reeults and their Interpretation. Zt ia imperative that uniform, standardised procedures and equipment be used to collect Mmpleo. The provlalon of quality control aeaaures and documentation Is also eeaential.

These are legal as well as technical requirements. Samplers are responsible for collecting aamplee, Initiating chaln-of- custody forms, traffic reports, and the necessary Maple documents aa re- quired. Table 4. Safety and personnel protection equipments requirements are specified in the health and Mfety plan. Thaaa aurvaya ara to ba rapaatad peri- odical ly, aa apacifiad in tha aampling plan. Surfaea water Collaetlng a representative eample froai surface water ia difficult bat not impoeaible.

Saaplea ahould ba collactad naar tha ahora unleaa boata ara faaalbla and permitted. A avail container or dipper attached to a pole la uaad to obtain tha aamplao. Approximate sampling pointa should ba identified on a sketch of the water body. The following procedures ara uaed: 1. Record available Information for tha pond, atream, or other water body, such aa ita size, location, depth, and probable eontenta. In the field logbook, on the- ehain-of-cuatody form, and on the aaaple log aheet. Take aaaplee near the.

See Table 4. Secure tha lid of each aaaple bottle and attach a label containing aaapla Identification, lumber, and data. Securely tape the lid to tha bottle; than data and initial tha tape. Measure tha aaaple radioactivity and record. Carefully pack aaaplaa. Ground Mater Monitoring Welle.

Figure 4. Mot all tha' information shown can ba obtained at all walla. Critical, required information iaelitdaa 1. Depth to water level 4. Total well depth 5. Amount of. Welle muet be bailed or pumped three to five well volumea before eampllng.

Samplea are taken after tha wall rechargea to Initial water depth. Care must be taken not to disturb eediment at the bottom of the well when taking saaplee. The following proceduree are uaed: 1. Neeaura tha watar level in tha wall uaing an N-aeope or other de- vice and record the elevation et the top of the water surface.

The standing water level haa been determined to be 10 ft or approxi- mately cm. To avoid disturbing tha aadiaent, do not inaart the bailer to. Note: If tha caalng aiza allowa. Do not 4. Whan tha wall haa recharged efficiently, remove enough water to fill all aaapla bottlem in accordance with Table 4. Add pre- eervatlvea where required. Za the. If tha well haa bam bailed aarly in tha morning. Label, tag, and nuaber the eaaple bottle.

Replace the well cap. Pack the Maples for ahipping. Transfer to g of the aaaple to a 2SO-al container. Attach a label, identification number, and tag. Store the aaapler and jar in a plaatlc bag until decontaainatlon or diapoaal. Added safety precautions, each aa lifelines, an Druas Probably the aoet common container at hasardeus waste sitae ia the drua, which la conetrueted of either aatal or paper. Drua aaaplee should be obtained through a free opening or through the bung hole whenever poealble, using the procedure described below.

Because druaa say fall structurally, losing all or part of their contents, caution auat always be exercised whan it ia neceesary to move drums to gain access to them. The wiaeat course of action ia to saaple. Remote-controlled bung wrenches are tha beat tools for opening drums. Drums must be opened slowly and carefully. If tha drum ia bulging because of inside preesure or vacuum, special precautions auet be taken in opening it.

It ia permissible to place disposable aaapling equipment in e drum that wae aeapled before reseellng it. The following proceduree are used to obtain saaplea from druaa: 1. Record any markings, special drua conditions! Stencil an identifying nuaber on the druaa and record in logbook. Consult tha sampling plan for identifications.

Make certain that the drua ia sat an a fin baae. Oaing a noasparking bung wrench or a remote-controlled bung remover, carefully remove tha bung and aet it aaida. Oruaa with top lida and snap-ring see la aay be opened by carefully reaoving the aeal and prying off the lid with a nonaparking tool. Set the lid and snap ring aaida.

Carefully insert the sampling tuba either aatal, glass, or com- patible- plastic into the drua contents. Secure the upper end of tha tuba with tha thumb or palm and withdraw tha tube. Replace the bung or cover carefully. Place the uaed eeapling tube, along with paper towela or waate rage ueed to wipe up any apille, into an empty natal barrel for subso- quent diapoaal.

Xf glaea tubing haa -been uaed, it aay be broken and left inalda the drum being eaapled. Replace the cap on the aaapla jar; label, date, and nuaber the jar. Record all information on the chain-of-cuetody fora, aaaple log sheet, aaaple tag, and field logbook. The sample jar uuabere and da tee maet aatch those recorded on all forma. Secure the aaaple container lid with heavy-duty tape.

Date and sign the tape. Measure the sample for radioactivity. Carefully pack saaplea. The finished package will be padlocked or cuatody-eealed for shipment to the laboratory. The preferred pro- cedure includea the uae of a cuatody aeal wrapped acroaa filament tape that ia wrapped around the package at leaat twice. The cua- tody eeal paper, plaatie. The seal ia eigned before the package ia shipped. Complete the appropriate traffic report.

Drum, eaaplea are always coneidered to be hlgh-haaard eamplee. More detailed proeadurea are provided in Guideline 4. Techniquoe of sampling are the- eeme, except eaapling equipment aay need to be longer to give a repreaeatative sample of deep tanka. Record the tank'a condition, aarkinga, opening or velve typee, and approximate eiae in gallona ia the field logbook, on the chain-of. Note the tank location oa the eite aketch. Attach em identification number to the tank ualag a stencil or weatherproof tag.

Record the nuabera ia the logbook. Oataraine whether the tank contanta art atratifled by inaerting a long plaatic or flaaa tuba aaapler, withdrawing it, and examining tha tuba con ten ta. Deliver aaaplar contanta, if atratlfied.

Secure tha jar lid and label, data, and number tha jar aa above. Securely tapa the lid to the jar; date and Initial the tape. Neaaure tha aaapla radioactivity and record. Cuetody-eeal the ahipping package aa da- acribad pravloualy. Clean any nondiapoaable aaapling equipaent and diapoea of cleaning aolventa and aatariala in a metal drum, wipe up any apilla and plaea rage or paper tovela in the metal drum for later dlapoael. Coaplete a high-hazard traffic report. Solid Waata Pilaa Pilea of waata uaually vary in aiza and eoapoaitlon.

Layered nenhoao- geneoua pilea require the uae of tube aaaplara or trlara to obtain croaa- aectlonal aaaplaa. Collact aaall, aqual portiona of the waate froa aeveral pointa at or near the anrfaee of the. Oaa numbered atakea. Collect a weata aaapie totaling to g and place it in a al giaaa container. Record all the required information in the field logbook and on the aaapie log aheet. Store the. Pack aaaplaa for ahipping. Make aura that tha traffic raport and the- chaia-of- cuatody form are properly filled oat and aacloeed or attached.

Rotata tha aaaplar onoa or twica to cut a eora of waata aatsrial. Rotata tha grain aaaplar innar tuba to tha opan position and than ahaka tha aaaplar a fav tloao to allow tha aatarlal to sntar tha opan allta. Nova tha aaaplar Into position with alota upward grain aaaplar eloaod and slowly withdraw it froa tha pila. Tranafar to g of aaapla into a al eontainar with tha aid of a apatula or bruah. Attach a labal idantiflcatlon nuabar and tag.

Racord all nacsssary information in tha fiald logbook and on tha aaaplo log shaat. Storo tha aaaplar in a plaatie bag until dacontaainatlon or diapoaal. Tapa tha lid on tha saapla bottla sacuraly and aark tha tapa with tha data and tha aaapla eollaetor'a initials. Pack aaaplaa for ahlpping. Attach a- cuatody saal to tha shipping packaga. Naka cartaln that tha traffic raport and chain-of-custody fora ara proporly Iliad out and ancloaod or attachad.

Soila Cuidolinaa for collaeting hasardoua aoll aaaplaa ara tha aaaa aa thoaa for eollacting anvlronaantal soil aaaplaa. Sludgaa and Sadlaanta Guidalinaa for eollacting hasardoua aludga and sadiaant aaaplaa ara tha aaaa aa. Moat of tha forms and' labala hawa baan atandardisad, thna providing for eonaistaney of dooaaantation. Theee ferae are diacuaeed separately.

Thoae Cone en not controlled doeuaente end therefore do not bear a eequential eerial nuaber. Theeo labela are controlled docuaonta. A eeapla label auat be attached to each bottle that eontaine a eaaple. Tho label euat be attached to tho bottle Juat befon patting tho eaaple into tho bottle. Xn addition, tho label ehould bo cowered with clear plaatie tape to enaure that it dooa not peel off or becoao daaagod. Tho BUS aaaple nuaber ia tho nuaber aeelgnod to tho weeto eoureo- under inepeetion and any aeapleo taken froa It.

Figaro 4. Thia label auat bo attached to the appropriate eaa- plo bottle before chipping it to tho dooignatod laboratory. Traffic report labela eoao attached to tho traffic reporta. Any onuaod labela auat be re- turned to the docuaaat cuatodian and eventually to 0V a Soaplo Nanagoaeat office. Tho nuaber which appoara an a traffic nport label ia the eeao nuaber that appeara in tho upper left-hand corner of the traffic report.

In addition to tho. Ho additional intonation need be entered an tho label. Xt ia attached to the top of a aaaple bottle before ahipping. An example of a aaaple identification tag la preaeated in Figure 4. Theee tags, together with tha NDS aaaple labela, serve to identify the aaaple. Blank tags aay be obtained froa the docuaent cuatodian when needed.

Theae tags are controlled docuaenta. Thia fora docuaenta cuetody transfer froa person to person. The chaln-of-cuetody fora ia a controlled docuaent. Blank foraa aay be obtained froa the docuaent cuatodian when needed. Theae foraa are part of the CPA'a aaaple-tracking eyataa and are uaed to trace the ahlpaent of aaaplea for laboratory analyaia.

Presently, theeo foraa are for three typea ofi saaplea: organiea, inorganico, and high hazard see Figures 4. The organiea and Inorganica foraa are-uaed to docuaent and Identify the collection of low- and aediua-concentratlon aaaplea for organic and inorganic analyela; the high-hasard fora la for high- concentration eaaplee. Traffic reporta are controlled documents that are maintained by the docuaent cuetodian.

The person doing the eaapling coapletee a traffic report for each eaaple that ia to be ahlpped for laboratory analyele. Theae foraa are simple enough and the iaatmctiona sufficiently clear that a detailed procedure for filling than out ia not warranted. Saapllng personnel ahould uae tha proper traffic report fora for each eaaple collected, environmental aaaplaa aust alwayo bo subaitted on the regular organiea or inorganlea traffic report, while aoat haaardoua waota saaplea require.

Envl- ronaontal saaplea ground water, strseaa. The aoat likely aediua-concentratlon eoureea are leaehate col- lection pools, onolto iapoundaents, aad onaita ditcheo. Soils- froa spoil banks or adjacent to oasite atorage areas are also likely to have a aadiua concentration of poliutanta. Site eaapling plans should be used aa a guide in assessing likely oaaditiono.

OMft 2 4. The custody seal is part of the chain-of-custody process and is used to prevent tampering with samples after they have been collected in the field. Custody seals are provided by the Sampling Management Office and are distributed by the document custodian on an as-needed basis. These forms will be provided by the carrier at the time of shipments. An example of a typical shipping fora is provided in Figure 4.

This form also provides certification to the carrier that the samples are identified, packaged, and presented for shipment in accordance with U. Department of Transportation regulations. Photographs When movies, slides, or photographs are taken of a site or any monitoring location, they are numbered to correspond to logbook entries. The name of the photographer, date, time, site location, site description, and weather conditions are entered in the logbook as the photographs are taken.

A aeries entry nay be used for rapid-sequence photographs. The photographer is not required to record the aperture settings and shutter speeds for photographs taken within the normal automatic exposure range. However, special lenses, films, filters, and other image-enhancement techniques must be noted in the logbook. If possible, such techniques should be avoided, since they can adversely affect the admissibillty of photographs as evi- dence.

Chain-of-custody procedures depend upon the subject matter, type of film, and the processing it requires. Film used for aerial photography, confidential information, or criminal investigations require chaln-of- cuatody procedures. Adequate logbook notations and receipts may be used to account for routine film processing. Not for waatae containing katonaa, nltrobansana, diosthylforaaaida, sssltyl oxida, tatrahydrofuran.

Not for waataa containing hydro- fluoric acid and concentrated alkali solutions. Pump say be uaed for preclaanlng well. Power or gaa aourcee re- quired. Bailers are slower than pnatps, require no tubing. Cannot be used to collect aaaplas beyond 12 ft. Requires Urge aaounts of disposable tubing; cannot be used when tubing is not compatible with astarla1.

Difficult to use with very viacoua liquids. Rsstricted to onshore aaspllng. Not applicable to aaspling dssper than 3 la. Difficult to obtain reproducible- sass of sasiplee. Doss not collect undisturbed core aasjple. Remove 'mager ' if preseat. Apply ice bag. Cover with a dry. Do nor break blunn or remove cuaue. Seek medical amntwa. Do not applv ice or immerse in cold water. Da aoc apply ointment. Keep burned fen ar lets elevated. Seek medical attention uafflediauly Chemical Buna.

Wain away the chemical soaked clothing with large amounts M water Remote vtcnm i chemical soaked doming If dry lune. Apply itcnie dressing and seec medical attention. Craapa ia mueclei of abdomen and extremities. Heat exnaiutun may also be present. CUTS Apply pressure with sterile geute dresaing.

Fluaa the eye with water. If flushing nib a remove the obtect. Caver the eye with a dry pad and seek medical atteaooa. If aecenary wipe out bia mouth. Maintain an open airway. Blisters may appear. Seek medical attention immediately. Profue iweaong. Keep m lying pennon and raiae victim's feet. Loosen clocking, apply cool wet clothe. Skin ia hoc. Victim may be unconscious. Ken victim in lying pooiooa with head elevated.

Remove clothing aad repeatedly sponge me bare tkia with cool water or rubome akohoi. If mahia mild, apply calamme or other soothing If a seven reacaon ocain. If pain aad iwellmg persist, ices medical attention. An operator from the answering service will answer the telephone. Do the following. SSS-R Prepared for. Box , La Jotta. The exceptions are water methods2 for the determination of fluoride Method A comprehensive list of analytes associated with these analytical procedures is given in Table 2.

Environmental Protection Agency, Otnar methods may yield improved Quantitative analysis. Appendix IX list 51 FR Not on the proposed 40 CFR Appendix IX list 51 PR These tables list the concentration of all analytes detected. Analytes not detected or otherwise qualified are not reported in these tables.

TABLE 3. J Indicates as estimated value, This flag is used when the data indicates the presence of a compound that mean the Identification criteria but the result is lesa than the specified detection limit but greater than zero e.

O8B 0. OO3J 0. OOa 0. ND MD MD aia. IRC ttcty 0. M 0. Tables 4. Percent recovery of surrogate compounds added to each sample can be found in Table 4. This newly compiled listing of hazardous substances is undergoing its first practical application to environmental samples.

Thus, new libraries were created, permitting full qualitative and quantitative analyses for both the volatile and semivolatile components on this list Due to this present study being the first application of the analysis of the Appendix IX compounds in this laboratory and possibly in any laboratory, several technical difficulties were recognized, which are documented here.

These substances included 3 internal standards used as an analytical aid , 3 surrogate compounds permitting quality control and 51 out of the 61 hazardous substances on the Appendix IX list. Of the original 61 volatile substances, two were redassified as semivolatile pyridine and ethyl methacrylate and one was too great of a health hazard to permit analysis as a standard 2-chloro-l,3-butadiene.

Finally, tour compounds ethyl ether, 2-propen-l-ol, 2-propyM-ol and l,3-dtchloropropenal are inappropriate for purge and trap analysis due to their high solubility in water. Reactivity of certain of the compounds led to poor analysis performance, most notably with the analysis of 2-chloroethyt vinyl ether, and to a lesser extent with 2-hexanone and 2-butanone.

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The qualified and experienced faculty at college along with the carefully designed and updated curriculum ensure that the students receive the best education and skills which can help them emerge as qualified professionals. In order to provide students with quality academic environment, the college has developed all the necessary infrastructural facilities.

Read More. View all Courses. Talk to Us! I'm interested in education loans. I have read the Privacy Policy and the Terms and Conditions. All contaminants detected in one sample were also detected in the duplicate sample. All of these compounds are common solvents, which makes their use universal, including their use as laboratory solvents. S J 04 1 0. I-Olchloroethene 1. AODT 2. The presence of the compound was identified, but the result is less then the specified detection limit although greater than zero.

B - Present in laboratory blank as well as sample. Note: No. While leachates from one codisposal site were almost free of volatile compounds, leachates from the second site contained the highest frequency of volatile detections. This sample was from a municipal disposal site. Bis 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate was detected in one codisposal site.

Results are listed in Appendix! These results are also given in Appendix I. Tables and summarize these data by site. As a result, the concentrations of most homologs are somewhat higher in these ashes. This leaching procedure produced only 0.

In other words, the octa homolog toxicity is equivalent to 0. The leachates reflect previously disposed ashes present at the site rather than the analyzed ashes. Samples were analyzed for inorganic constituents. Results are compared to the EP toxicity maximum allowable limit in Tables and For the NY ash, the EP toxicity leachate was only 3. For the NC ash sample, the EP toxicity maximum allowable limits of 5 ppm was not met by any of the three leaching procedures, and in fact, exceeded it many folds.

These samples were not designed to represent samples from the entire industry but rather to report the situation at these six sites. Sampling was selectively done at sites equipped with leachate collection systems and sites which were constructed post-RCRA and which do not accept industrial wastes for disposal. The pH of leachates from these sites was neutral to slightly basic and ranged between 6.

The high values of biological oxygen demand BOD , chemical oxygen demand COD , and total organic carbon TOC detected in leachates from these sites were at least an order of magnitude lower than the high values reported in the literature. In general, there were very few reports on this subject. The actual leachates always met the EP maximum allowable limit; the test-generated leachates periodically did? The inorganic constituents detected in leachates from the hazardous waste sites were at much higher concentrations than in the leachates collected from the four municipal waste disposal sites and from the codisposal sites.

Only 11 volatile compounds, 4 semivolatile compounds, and 5 pesticides were detected in these leachates. Concentrations of these compounds were very low. The levels of these detected compounds ranged from a ppb level to many thousands of ppms. Only the actual leachates from the codisposal sites, the ashes from these sites, and the artificially generated leachates were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs.

The 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents for these compounds are extremely low. These levels are extremely low. Recommendations The data base for the general characterization and toxic characteristics of codisposal sites, as well as monofills, is very limited. Carefully conducted studies at such sites are essential. The data base for metal levels in test-generated leachates from ashes is large, but the relation between ashes and actually generated leachates in codisposal sites and monofills is almost absent.

In this area, where: additional studies are needed. Levels of semivolatile compounds in leachates from monofills should be established and evaluated. This Work Plan is based on general use of the NUS team staff required to assin the EPA project manager in developing data to evaluate the potential health and environmental effects of leachate from municipal landfills.

A Sections U and Criteria 40 OH Part 2S7 are adequate to protect human health and the environment from groundwater contamination, and recommending whether additional authorities are needed to enforce there criteria. Further, by March 31,19M, EPA must revise the criteria for facilities that may receive hazardous household waste or small quantity generator hazardous wane.

Since , itudies conducted in support of this report to Congress, have raised concerns regarding the chemical composition of leachate generated from municipal waste landfills. These concerns center on the detection of certain tone metals and onjarikfc and on the lack of available data for a comprehensive and defensible evaluation of the effects of leachates on human health and the environment.

The purpose of the work described herein is to conduct fioM sampling and perform chemical analyses of leachate and municipal waste combustion MWQ ash from municipal waste landfills to provide additional data for the detailed evaluation of potential health and environmental effects.

Jon R. Percy U. Perry: Enclosed please find a copy at the above-referenced Work plan. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact either ayself or H. Sincerely, Barbara E. Galida K. Grosanickle B. Further, by March To conduct this tffbrt with a sound methodology, the work will bo approached in two phases.

Phase II will expand the data bete through additional sample collection and analyses. The separate tasks m Phase t are described in the following sections. This tatk alto mdudat the praparation of a projact overview including the study rational in a concise form. This work plan also providas a description of analytical procedures for the eighteen field leachate samples and the extraction methods for the two solids ash samples.

Validation and review procedures and a description of deiiveraWes are also included in this plan. The detailed work plan is this document. A brief questionnaire will be developed to provide guidance for this telephone interview.

Examples of probable locations are collection sumps and drainage ditches. Alternatively, they will be collected using stainless steel buckets attached to an aluminum handle or a length of polyethylene rope. All sample containers will be filled to capacity to prevent oxidation and precipitation of dissolved material. The ash will be sampled prior to burial to ensure that its composition may be accurately evaluated.

Samples will be collected using stainless steel spoons or scoops. Material will be collected from all parts of the ash deposit. Table lists the number, analytical parameters, containers, and preservatives for all samples.

After use. Both the field Itachate and the leachate prepared from the ash in the laboratory will be analyzed for various inorganic and organic compounds. This is very similar to Method from SW utilizing different surrogates and internal standards. A three level initial calibration curve will be analyzed for all AppendixIX compounds and response factors checked daily with the mid-point solution.

Other representative compounds will bo checked to determine the linearity of the initial calibration curve response facton with a limit of less than 30 percent difference from the mean response factor. These compounds' response facton will be calculated and a percent difference of less than 25 percent from the initial calibration curve moan response factor will be the criteria to bo mot prior to sample analysis.

These response factors will be cheeked daily with the mid-point standard, once again meeting minimum response factor and a 25 percent difference from the mean response factor pnor to sample analysis. Herbicide and pesticide analysis will be determined by proposed Method Our experience in analysing sludge samples and in the validation of the new CLP Pesticide Protocol has demonstrated that identification of peaks using megabore capillary analysis is less ambiguous than with packed column and that ejuamrtation is more precise with capillary.

The use of thaw canridgat greatly increase the throughput of samples in the laboratory. Recovery limits will be as listed on the CLP forms for the organochlorine pesticides. The limits are in the process of being determined through an interiaboratory study for tha organophosphorus and phenoxyacid compounds. Dioxim and furans will be determined by SW with no modifications. This data review is independent of internal validations performed-by the laboratory.

This report will include quality assurance and quality control records and an evaluation of the sampling and analytical methodologies used for these types of samples and analyses. This letter will also outline expected Quality Control QC goals for surrogate and matrix spike recoveries. Volatile compounds will be analyzed modified by EPA Method This is very. A three level initial calibration curve will be analyzed for all Appendix IX compounds and response factors checked daily with the mid-point solution.

As per CLP requirements selected compounds will be checked to meet minimum response factor requirements in both the initial and continuing calibration analyses. Semivolatile compounds wOl be analyzed by a modified EPA Method which is very similar to SW Method , once again utilizing different internal standards and surrogate compounds.

Once again a three-point initial calibration curve wfll be analyzed for all Appendix DC compounds and response factors checked to meet minimum response factors and a 30 percent maximum percent difference from the mean for selected representative compounds. Haia Hoffman October 16, Page Two Included as enclosures to this letter are copies of the CLP QC forms and a list of Internal standards and surrogates to be used on this project The surrogates limits will be strictly adhered to, with reanalysia of samples which do not meet criteria when sufficient sample is available.

Matrix spike and duplicate analysis criteria are guidelines in the sense that these data are utilized to oive information on the precision and accuracy of the method for samples or this particular matrix. Preanalysis will not be performed if these goals are not met unless there is an obvious laboratory error in which case re-extraction will be carried out if there is sufficient sample.

We expect there will be enough sample volume to reanalyze all but the sample chosen for matrix analyses. Also included in this package is a copy of proposed Method This is essentially a consolidation and modification of SW methods. Our experience in analyzing sludge samples and in the validation of the new CLP Pesticide Protocol has demonstrated that identification of peaks using megabore capillary analysis is less ambiguous than with packed column and that quantttatfon ia more precise with capillary.

In addition, the use of capillary analysis allows determination of more Appendix IX analytes than does packed column analysis. The limits are in the process of being determined through an interlaboratory study for the organophosphoms and phenoxyadd compounds. At this point this method does not use surrogates.

The CLP surrogate dibutyl chiorendate has been determined to be ineffective due to degradation problems. Since no recovery limits have been determined no corrective action for high or tow recoveries is anticipated. Dioxins and furans if necessary will be determined by SW with no modifications. As outlined in our previous communications, metals will be determined by the listed SW on EPA methods without modification. Samples and extracts will be retained for 80 days after the submission of the data unless otherwise requested.

Raw data including GC chromatograms will be retained for the same period. I hope this gives you suffldert infomwttan to writs- your work plan. Please give me a call if you need to modify any of the QC goals or if further information is necessary. Contract No. Work Assignment No. Inc 15th Street N. Suite Washington, D. C Contract No. The acre site is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of 12 acres of fill area, and Phase II consists of 18 acres of fill area.

The landfill is located in a large drainage ravine. Because of its topography, the site has been characterized as "extremely poor to unacceptable" by the Geological Survey in the preliminary plan for the landfill, submitted in December Situated in a drainage area with shallow sandy soil and steep slopes, the site was evaluated as having a high potential for problems with run-on and runoff, erosion, unstable slopes and high maintenance of diversion ditches, slopes, and roads.

In January , the Department of Health also concluded that the property was " It was opened in late , and operations began in January Phase I is currently full and in the process of being closed. Phase I has not been approved as of April Problems have occurred with leachate seeping through the settling ponds and running downhill.

Additional identified problems are improper compaction, questionable cell structure, and lack of methane and leachate control devices. The operations plan states that cells will be filled daily by a ramp method. The cells are 25 feet wide by 30 feet long and are 6 feet deep.

Operations began in the Phase I area in January , and this area is currently full. An application for approval of operations in the Phase II area has not yet been submitted as of April The Phase I fill operated 5 days per week and accepted about 75 tons per day, or cubic yards compacted. This area, which is part of the foothils that rise from the floor of the Valley, which is dissected by numerous ridges and ravines.

The site is characterized as a draw, or canyon, with sloping sides of weathered shale underlain by deep shale formations. The shale is covered with up to 10 feet of slope-wash deposited soils and residual soils.

The slope wash and residual soils are mainly clays but include angular sand- to gravel-size shale fragments that are nonstratified. The alluvial sand and sheet-wash-deposited soils are similar in composition to the slope wash and residual soils and are poorly stratified. There are no wells in the area because of the lack of ground water in the shale bedrock. Only a few seasonal seeps occur along the shale bedding joints.

Hazardous or toxic wastes, POTW liquid wastes, septic tank wastes and liquid industrial wastes were not accepted. According to the design, the landfill accepted 75 tons per day, or cubic yards, compacted, 5 days per week for 7 years; thus, the completed Phase I area could contain about , tons of waste or , cubic yards,. The files do not provide any data on the relative composition of the waste with respect to percentage of industrial waste, municipal waste, sludge, etc 2.

No synthetic or constructed day liner was installed at the landfill. Figures 1 and 2 show the location of construction of the leachate reservoir and the earthen dam around it. The plan called for the surface and subsurface water collected in the leachate reservoir to be used for fire control and for revegetation. A memo issued before the landfill began operating, mentioned several alternatives for leachate handling, induding recyding on the landfill or discharge to the sanitary system.

The latter alternative evidently was not pursued because the file makes no mention of an NPDES permit. A newspaper article in the file implies that the collected leachate was pumped to sprinklers and sprayed back over the landlfill. Phase I plan. The site is in a ravine. Because the area is occasionally covered with surface-water flow, the landfill was designed with a drainage diversion ditch around the fill area.

A diversion dam is located on the upstream end of the fill to divert storm drainage into the ditch see Figure 1. The ditch is designed to contain twice the volume of rain and runoff of a year flood. A consultant's report recommended that the ditches be lined with asphalt; however, they stayed unlined so that heavy equipment could be operated in them. The daily cover was excavated to make a trench for the cell; the excavated soil was placed on the previously completed cell to help compact the refuse.

The development plan submitted to the county states that a minimurrvof 6 inches of cover material composed of weathered shale will be utilized to cover each cell and compacted lift to prevent the blowing of trash. A minimum depth of 2 feet of compacted topsoil cover material is to be used over the final lift upon completion of final grades. The permit application and development plan state that leachate will be collected in the leachate rerservoir and that it may be used for dust control, revegetation, or reapplication to the landfill, or it may be discharged to the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

The files indicate that the leachate was evaporated when possible or was sprinkled back over the landfill surface. The development plan and the permit application state that gas recovery devices see Figure 4 would be constructed in the fill; however, letters and memos in the State files indicate that these devices had not been installed as of October The files do not include information on whether these devices might have been installed in late or Methane gas control device.

A memo and a newspaper article mention problems with leachate seepage and slumping of diversion ditches, but the solutions if any were taken to these problems are not addressed in the files reviewed. Surface water in the interceptor trenches was soaking through the trench and seeping into natural drainage ravines.

The water then passed through the fill and became impounded in the dams below the fill. The memo states that both impoundments were constructed of non-compacted earth and that they had slumped so badly they were in danger of failure.

The uppermost impoundment was being siphoned into the lower impoundment, which was overtopping. Leach ate was being discharged by the lower impoundment into the natural drainageway that flows 1 mile away. The leachate overtopping the bottom impoundment was being discharged at a rate of more than 15 gallons per minute.

Trash was floating in the waters of the uppermost impoundment. In an October memo covering a survey of the landfill, the following observations were made: 1 methane gas control devices were not in place as shown on the operational plan; 2 no dead animal and sludge pits were noted as mentioned in the narrative of the operational plan; 3 nor portable fencing was seen as mentioned in the narrative of the operational plan; and 4 revegetation or reclamation efforts were not evident.

In a newspaper article included in the State files no date provided , the author described the seepage of a bright orange liquid through the settling ponds at the landfill, which was flowing downhill. The article says that the site operators acknowledged the problem and were making plans to remedy it The article described the settling ponds as water-permeable shale and said that the leachate collected in them normally evaporates before causing a problem.

The author further indicated that the operators applied to the State Water Quality Control Commission for a discharge permit. The files reviewed do not contain information on any effects on human health and the environment from the VD Landlfill. Sanitary Landfill on January 17, Two subsequent operating permits were granted in April and on December 4, The expiration date of the latest permit is November 1, The medium to fine sand was reported to be underlain by silty to clayey sand to a depth of at least 50 feet below the ground surface.

These aquifer systems are a surfkial unconftned aquifer, an upper artesian aquifer, and a deeper aquifer. Another of the monitoring wells was developed in the deeper aquifer. The fifth monitoring well was developed in the surficial aquifer upgradient of the landfill. Construction Permit No.

The initial operating permit was issued on May 23, to allow this landfill to begin accepting wastes. Two subsequent operating permits have been issued for this site with the latest operating permit issued on December 4, for the period of December 4, to November 1, The operating permit application dated March 8, indicated the method for disposing of the wastes was the sequential trench method with a yard trash composting pile, a tomato waste pit, and a wood chip and fiberboard open stock-pile.

The March operating permit application indicated seven cells with several areas for additional cells. Three of the cells Nos. Another cell No. The existing cells were excavated to a depth of between 10 and 30 feet. The proposed cells were shown as excavated to a depth of 30 feet The sizes of the cells at the ground surface varied from 1, feet long by 50 feet wide to feet long by feet wide.

The side slopes for the existing cells were not indicated, while the side slopes for Cells 6 and 7 were shown as 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. The estimated life for the remainder of Cell 3 and Cells 4,6, and 7 was about 7 years.

The acre landfill is located on land of which acres is owned by the city and the remaining 20 acres are owned by the county. The land adjacent to the site is generally forest in which timber operations have been conducted. The land use for areas adjacent to the access road to the landfill is residential.

The FL Landfill accepts municipal wastes, wastes from a furniture manufacturing plant, and a tomato packing plant and wastes from a hospital. The landfill serves a population of about 9, The estimated quantity of wastes was about 75 cubic yards per day in the operating permit application. Additionally, both an intermediate and final cover were to be placed over the refuse.

A leachate collection system was also shown in this application. This leachate collection system consisted of a 4 inch perforated pipe in a sand filter. This leachate collection system was placed at the base of each side slope. The March operating permit application stated a leachate collection system which would be installed in the unused portion of Cell 3 and in Cells 4, 6 and 7. The leachate collection system consisted of a trench beneath the base of each trench and installation of a 6 inch PVC in a gravel filter in each trench.

The 6 inch PVC pipes were shown flowing into one of two lift stations where the leachate would be pumped to a sealed leachate pond. The leachate would be allowed to evaporate and trucked to a sanitary treatment plant for treatment. The bentonite-polymer soil liner consisted of mixing the bentonite polymer with the top 6 inches of material in contact with the wastes.

A Special Report estimated that 17 million gallons per year could be produced from this landfill. This report also estimated it would take 6. Underlying the medium to fine grain sands was a 10 foot thick layer of silty and clayey sands SM-SC. The Hawthorn Formation is composed of a sequence of highly variable clays, sands and interbedded limestone with no dominant lithologic type. The Tampa Limestone was described as a gray sandy, micritic to crystalline, argillaceous limestone with the top of this unit at a depth of feet below the ground surface.

The thickness of the Tampa Limestone is about feet at this site. The Suwanee Limestone was described in the March permit application as a crystallized, highly dolomitic, fossiliferous limestone containing thin beds of dolomitic days. The Suwanee Limestone was estimated to occur at a depth of feet and to be about feet thick at this site.

The Ocala Limestone was described as a micritic to crystalline fossiliferous limestone. Additionally, the formation was described as highly dolomitic near the top of the unit and contains some calcareous day. The Ocala Limestone was estimated to occur at a depth of about feet below the site and was about feet thick.

The May Groundwater Monitoring Plan prepared by a Consulting Engineers Company indicated three aquifers in the groundwater regime beneath the site. One of the aquifers is an unconfined surficial aquifer consisting df about 50 feet of sandy soils at the site.

The aquifer is generally not used as well yields are generally less than 5 gpm. Below the surficial aquifer, the groundwater regime consists of two artesian aquifers, which are the upper artesian aquifer and a deeper aquifer. The specific capacity of wells developed in this highly variable aquifer is reported to average 5 gpm or less.

There were no report users of this aquifer in the vicinity of the PL Landfill. The stratigraphically lowest aquifer beneath the landfill is reported to be over 1, feet thick beneath this site. This aquifer is the major source of potable water in the area. Monitoring well MW-3 was developed in the Tampa Limestone. The specific capacity of this well was 0.

The results of a pump test in a well several miles to the east of the site and cased through the upper unit yielded a transmissivity of 1, square feet per day and a storage capacity of 2. The test results indicated the in-place permeability ranged from 2. These measurements indicated the groundwater elevation varied from an elevation of Test results of groundwater samples collected on December 18, indicated a slightly higher concentration of most parameters downgradient from the landfill.

The highest concentrations were obtained in Monitoring well MW-5, which is the closest monitoring well downgradient of the landfill. The March operating permit application indicated the FL Landfill consisted of seven cells, a yard trash composting pile, a tomato waste pit a wood chip and fiber board open stockpile, and two areas for additional cells. The sequential trench method was shown as the method for disposing of the wastes.

Three of the seven trenches Nos. Cell 3 was about completely excavated. The material excavated from Cell 4 was being used as daily and intermediate cover for Cell 3. Cells 6 and 7 were proposed for future waste disposal. It was estimated Cells 6 and 7. The size of the cells varied at the ground surface from 1, feet long by 50 feet wide for Cells 1 and 2 to feet long by feet wide for Cell 7. Construction permit was issued on January 17, to begin construction of this landfill.

The initial operating permit was issued on May 23,, at which time the landfill began accepting wastes. Two subsequent operating permits have been issued for this site with the latest permit for the period of December 4, to November 1, The FL Landfill serves a population of about 9, The lands adjacent to the landfill are forested, except for the area adjacent to the access road which is residential.

Timber operations have been reported in the forest areas adjacent to the landfill. After the access road to the landfill was constructed, about 20 residences were built on properties adjacent to the access road. As a special condition of the latest permit, the site is not permitted to accept significant quantities of hazardous wastes.

Another special condition of the latest permit is prior to disposal of industrial wastes, the industrial concern is to provide a letter stating the nature, volume, and chemical characteristics of the wastes. To be included in this letter was a statement indicating the waste is or has been rendered innocuous or nonhazardous. The types and volumes of wastes accepted in the past at this landfill are similar to those indicated in Table II.

Based on calculations in the March permit application, the total volume available in Calls4, 6 and? System I. Collector Sampia Received Dee. The side slopes of the trenches were not specified. Surface drainage was to be provided by 4 inch perforated pipes in sand backfilled trenches at the base of each side slope for each trench.

The wastes were to be placed in cells with a maximum working face of 40 feet in about 2 foot lifts. A 6 inch daily cover and an additional 6 inch intermediate cover over a completed cell were to be placed. The maximum settled height of a cell was to be 6 feet. The March operating permit application indicated Ceils 4. Additionally, a leachate collection system waste be installed in the unused portion of Cell 3 and in Cells 4, 6 and 7. The leachates collection system for each cell is shown on Figure 2.

The individual cells within a trench were shown as 10 feet thick with a 6 inch daily and intermediate cover placed over the wastes. The method for compacting the wastes was not indicated in the copy of the permit application we were provided, although it may be included in the original or the permit application as several pages were missing in the copy we received.

The leachates collection systems were shown as a trench in each cell excavated below the base of the trench. Each of the trenches was shown lined with a 6 inch thick bentonite-polymer soil liner. After the liner is installed, a 6 inch perforated PVC pipe is shown enclosed in a gravel backfill. The gravel backfill is enclosed in filter doth with the remainder of the trench backfilled with sand: The leachate collection systems are shown sloped to drain to one of two lift stations from which the leachates would be pumped to a leachate treatment pond.

After placing the ieachate collection system, a liner was to be placed on the bottom of the trench for Cells 4, 6 and 7, and along the sides of the trench for Cells 6 and 7. Storm water runoff was to be collected using two methods. One method was to convey runoff from the tops of cells to a detention pond using a combination of small berms and shallow ditches or swales.

Another method to be used was to construct temporary berms in the bottoms of the cells in advance of the placement of wastes. These berms are to prevent uncontaminated storm water from coming into contact with the wastes or leachates. A final cover was indicated to be placed over each completed cetl and as each of the new cells is completed.

The final cover was stated to consist of three 6 inch thick lifts, in addition to the 6 inch daily cover and 6 inch intermediate cover. After placing the initial 6 inch lift, a 6 inch thick layer of compacted earth topped by a 6 inch layer of loose earth was to be placed.

A detail of a gas monitoring well was shown in the March permit application. Although a portion of the narrative regarding the gas monitoring well was missing from the file, it appears gas monitoring wells are to be installed if a significant quantity of gas is detected. The hours of operation and whether the landfill was operated on holidays were not indicated in the March permit application.

The Caterpillar tract loader is also used for excavation of new cells. It was stated in the March permit application that the following equipment needed to be purchased: a tank truck, a fertilizer spreader attachment, and a steel drum compactor. It was inferred from this permit application that the following personnel were on site: an operator for the Caterpillar loader, a gate keeper, a supervisor part-time, and other personnel on an as-needed basis.

The facility utilizes the sequential trench methods for disposal of the wastes and currently has seven cells permitted. Five of the seven cells have been excavated and the excavated material used as daily and intermediate cover in the cell in which wastes were being placed. The March permit application estimated there would be excess material after the material excavated from Cells 6 and 7 was used as daily and intermediate cover for the remainder of Cell 3 and for new Cells 4, 6, and 7.

The excavated material was also to be used as final cover for Cells 1 through 7. The individual cells in a trench were shown to be constructed by spreading and compacting refuse in 10 foot lifts. The wastes are to be covered with a 6 inch layer of soil at the end of the day.

The succeeding individual cells are to be placed as shown on Figure 3. An intermediate soil cover of an additional 6 inches is to be placed over the 6 inch daily cover after an individual cell is completed. A final cover of 18 inches is to be installed using the material excavated from Cells 6 and 7. A leachate collection system is to be in the remainder of Cell No.

From the leachate collection pond, the leachate is to be trucked to a sanitary treatment plant or allowed to evaporate. A liner is to be placed in the bottom of Cells 4. Litter was indicated to be controlled by the use of portable fences and covering the site daily. The permit application indicated the County Agriculture Extension would be consulted for the proper control methods if insects become a problem.

Other controls for disease and vector control were not indicated in the case file, although they may be in the original permit application as a page was missing in this section of the operation plan. Open burning is not permitted at the landfill site. Accidental fires would be extinguished by smothering the fire with either soil or water from monitoring well MW If assistance is required to extinguish a fire, the Fire Department would be called.

A specific condition of the latest permit is suitable backup equipment be available for use within 24 hours in case the existing machinery should fail. Another specific condition of the latest permit is the operator obtaining, prior to accepting industrial wastes, and keeping records on the nature, volume and chemical characteristics of the industrial waste. Included in the record is to be a statement that waste is or has been rendered innocuous or nonhazardous. Records are also to be retained of all monitoring information, copies of all reports required by the permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the permit.

A closure plan for the FL Landfill is to be submitted at least 1 year prior to the projected date of when the proposed future cells wouid be filled. The ground water monitoring plan consisted of five wells at the locations shown on Figure 1. Monitoring well MW-1 was developed in the surficial aquifer upgradient of the landfill to provide background water quality. Monitoring well MW-3 was developed in the Floridian aquifer and is a compliance well.

A specific condition of the latest operating permit S was the monitoring wells were to be sampled and tested on a quarterly basis. Additionally, the samples were to be analyzed for the following parameters: water level field , pH field , conductivity field , IDS, TOC, TNK, chlorides, iron, nitrates, sulfates, and manganese.

The permit application included a detail showing a gas monitoring well. It was not indicated in the copy of this permit application we received if gas monitoring wells were to be installed or if the gas monitoring wells were contingent upon gas being encountered. The bentonite-polymer soil mixture liner would reduce the generation and migration of leachate from the new cells.

The bentonite-polymer soil mixture as a final cover would reduce the generation of leachate from both new and existing cells. The leachate collection system and treatment pond would collect leachate generated by the landfill and transport it so that it could be treated. The bentonite-polymer soil liner, bentonite-polymer soil mixture final cover, and the leachate collection system and treatment pond should reduce leachate generation and migration. The time period for these charges is not known.

Active disposal areas are generally underlain by low-permeability clays and mudstone. No engineered liners are required. The bottom of trench excavations must be at least 3 feet above the seasonal high groundwater table. An additional No surface water contamination has been detected. A permit application for the site was issued in December The site had been used as an automobile raceway. The site topography is ranging from flat to moderately sloped.

Land use around the site is apparently agricultural with a low population density. The site is underlain by several different materials including day, mudstone, and basalt. Most of the site where disposal occurs is underlain by low-permeability material. During wet winter months, water may be ponded on the ground surface. Depth to groundwater varies seasonally. Wastes received by the site are municipal wastes hauled by commercial haulers.

The public is not allowed to use the site. Municipal sewage sludge is apparently also disposed of at the site. Wastes are disposed of using the trench- area-fill methods of disposal. An important design feature of the site is a leachate collection and treatment system. Leachate is collected in a lagoon at the site and treated by land application. The leachate lagoon was recently expended to increase its storage capacity.

The site has reportedly has some operational problems related to odor control. The 58 acre landfill is owned and operated by the county and accepts waste only from commercial haulers. The facility is located on a acre parcel of land. An inspection conducted in indicated that approximately 2 to 3 acres of fill had received final cover. The site topography ranges from flat to moderately sloped. The southwestern portion of the site is generally flat, being located in the flood plain.

The topography then rises to the northeast. A topographic map of the site is shown in Figure 1. There is approximately feet of relief at the site with elevations ranging from to 1, feet. The land use and population distribution around the site were not described in the file information. The site is underlain by four major materials: day, mudstone, sandstone, and volcanic rock. The clay underlies the lower, southwestern portion of the site and is generally found below an elevation of feet.

This soil is derived from the weathering of the mudstone of the Eugene Formation and is generally described as moist, gray-black, very stiff, slightly sandy day. The thickness of this soil is typically greater than 8 feet. Mudstone is generally found in the central portion of the site at elevations between and feet The rock is fresh to moderately weathered and is generally described as moist gray, brown, or gray-brown mottled, widely jointed mudstone with rust staining on jointing and bedding planes.

Sandstones at the site are sedimentary sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones of the Eugene Formation. These materials are interbedded with the mudstones and occur in the northwest part of the site in a bed at an elevation of to feet Where exposed , the sandstone is deeply weathered to a friable reddish-buff color. The rock is generally described as arkosic, tuffaceous, volcanic-derived from weathered volcanic rocks.

Volcanic rock at the site consists of basalt and andesite flows and dike intrusives with little soil cover. These rocks are generally confined to the upper east and northeast portions of the site. While permeability tests were not performed, the clays were described as being nearly impermeable at or near optimum moisture content. Groundwater at the site was not well characterized or described in the site investigation report.

It was mentioned that during winter months, the groundwater may actually rise to the ground surface. It was not certain, however, if this condition was caused by rising groundwater or by surface water ponding due to poor soil drainage. Depths to groundwater in monitoring wells ranged from 6. Uses of groundwater near the site were not described. Surface water drainage at the site is generally to the south.

The only information given was that the site receives wastes only from commercial haulers and that the public is not allowed to use the site. The SM Landfill received a total of 1,, yd3 of solid wastes in and 1,,yd3inl Although hazardous waste disposal is not allowed at the site, the facility file indicates that hazardous wastes have been stored at the site. Correspondence dated April , indicates that an accumulation of PCS capacitors and transformers were in temporary storage at the site.

The final disposition of those materials was not specified. Information in the facility file also describes the disposal of sewage sludge at the site by land application. It is not clear from the information presented whether the site is routinely used for disposal of sewage sludge or if sludge is applied only to aid in revegetation of final cover. The site reportedly received a total of , gallons of sludge in and , gallons in The only reference to liners is contained in the general conditions of the permit.

These conditions require that the deepest landfill excavation be a minimum of 3 feet above the seasonal high groundwater table. An inspection conducted in April , indicated that wastes were being placed in cells directly on top of the existing ground surface. Surface runon and runoff are controlled through the use of diversion ditches and berms.

Temporary berms are used to route all potentially contaminated runoff from active disposal areas to the leachate storage lagoon. Runon from uncontaminated areas is diverted around active disposal areas. No other details of the surface runoff control system were provided.

Leachate collection is an important aspect of the facility design. The facility permit requires that all 4eachate and contaminated rain and surface water must be stored through the period from November 1 through May 1 of each year without discharge.

From May 1 through November 1, stored leachate is disposed of by irrigating on adjacent land. The leachate collection system for the site consists of an interceptor trench located downgradient south of the disposal area. Specific design details of the system were not available in the facility file. The storage lagoon originally constructed at the site consisted of a 2.

This lagoon did not prove large enough to store leachate during the winter months. Therefore, in the construction of an additional 25,, gallon, "I" shaped lagoon around the existing facility began. The combined capacity is great enough that irrigation is required only during the summer months. Both lagoons are constructed above grade with dikes made of compacted day soil. The lagoon bottoms are lined with 1 foot of compacted clay soil. A site inspection report prepared in indicated that methane control systems are present at the site.

No details were provided on these systems. The site is operated using a combination of the area-fill and trench-fill methods of disposal. Clay topsoil is excavated from the southwestern part of the site for use as daily and final cover. The facility permit requires daily cover consisting of at least 6 inches of compacted soil and final cover consisting of at least 2 feet of compacted soil.

Or ginally, wood chips were used as daily cover. This practice was stopped because of odor problems. Revegetation of the final cover is apparently enhanced by the application of sewage sludge. As described above, the lagoon was recently expanded to contain increased leachate flow. The leachate flow measured in was 8,, gallons. The permit requires that groundwater monitoring wells be installed in accordance with specified recommendations.

Biannual monitoring must be conducted for pH, alkalinity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand COD , ammonia nitrogen, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen. In , six wells were constructed at the site at the locations shown in Figure 2. Typical well completion details are shown in Figure 3. The logs of these wells were not available. The completed well depths and depths to groundwater in April , are shown in Table 1.

Monitoring data are available for April! Analytes include the required parameters plus temperature, suifate, color, iron, calcium, magnesium, hardness, and total organic carbon TOO. The most recently available results April , sampling are shown in Table 2. Surface water and leachate sampling are also required at the site. Three surface water sampling stations and one leachate sampling station are maintained, as shown in Figure 2.

Since , these stations have been sampled at the same time and for the same analytes as the monitoring wells. Prior to , the leachate lagoon and Camas Swale Creek were occasionally sampled. The most recently available results April , sampling are shown in Table 3. The groundwater monitoring data presented in Table 2 indicate several parameters in downgradient wells elevated above levels in the background well GW The impact of landfill operations on these levels is not specifically known because there are no comparative background data collected before disposal began.

The environmental impact of elevated levels is not known because the use of shallow groundwater in the area is not described. Location of Monitoring Stations. ACS CK. The surface water monitoring data shown in Table 3 shows essentially no difference between samples taken from the Creek upstream and downstream of the site.

These results are suggestive of minimal impact of landfill operations on surface water quality. S9 45 11 1. WA Contract No. These deposits generally exhibit relatively high permeabilities. No environmental damage has been documented. A permit for operation of the site was issued in December The site is characterized topographically by rolling hills with numerous kettle depressions.

Surrounding land use varies from rural agricultural to rural residential residential. Future land use for the area was not specified in the facility file. The site is located on deep deposits of glacially-derived, unconsolidated sediments consisting predominantly of sandy, glacial till. The depth to groundwater ranges from 40 to feet, depending upon site topography. No navigabte surface waters are located on the property; however, some of the surface water runoff collects locally in kettle holes or infiltrates directly into the subsurface.

Approximately 80, yd? The facility occupies The site design includes a 5-foot thick clay liner a and a leachate collection system. The site will be developed in 4 phases using the area fill method of disposal. The facility operating plan was approved in April, , and construction approved and a permit issued in December, The site is characterized topographically by rolling hills with numerous kettle depressions Figure 1. The general slope of the land is to the east-southeast.

Ground elevations at the disposal site range from 1, feet in the northwest corner to 1, feet in the northeast. Land use surrounding the site varies from rural agriculture to rural residential to residential. The population immediately surrounding the site was not specified in the facility file.

The unconsolidated deposits at the site consist mainly of sandy glacial till. The site is mantled in most places by a thin veneer of topsoil ranging from 0 to 1 foot in thickness. The texture of the topsoil is a silty sand. The sandy till deposits are directly under the topsoil and have been divided into three groups based on grain-size analyses. A brown fine sand, little to some silt and day, little gravel is the upper sand unit over the majority of the site. The fine sand unit ranges in thickness from 0 to over feet The soil gradations range from 5-IS percent gravel, percent coarse sand, percent medium sand, percent find sand, and percent silt and day.

Generally underlying the fine sand is a brown, fine to medium sand, some gravel, little silt and clay. The unit varies in thickness from 0 to over feet The gradations range from percent gravel, percent coarse sand, percent medium sand, percent fine sand, and percent silt and day. This unit is somewhat coarser than the upper fine sand. Underlying the fine to medium sand is a brown fine to coarse sand, little silt and day, trace to some gravel.

The gradations for this unit range from 2 to 40 percent gravel, percent coarse and, percent medium sand, percent fine and percent silt and day. Bedrock was not encountered in any of the soil borings at the site which ranged up to feet in depth. The glacial drift deposits of northern PC are underlain by Precambrian aged igneous and metamorphic rocks.

The rocks are generally impermeable, consisting largely of granite. Gneiss, schist, shale, greenstone, and quartzite do occur, however, in outcrops in the northern parts of the County. The surface of the Precambrian basement is generally flat, slopping to the south at approximately 10 feet per mile. The depth to groundwater at the site ranges between 40 and feet.

The glacial drift is the major water bearing aquifer in the site vicinity. Areas of clean sand and gravel outwash can yield up to 2, gpm, whereas the most productive wells in the glaciat till yield less than 1, gpm and typically less than gpm. Regional data indicate the presence of a regional groundwater divide to the west of the site as shown in Figure 2. The divide is rather broad in the vicinity of the site. Plow directions are generally to the south-southeast through the site area.

Recharge to the aquifer is predominantly from infiltration of precipitation. Due to the high permeability sands, large volumes of precipitation infiltrate into the subsurface soils. Many of the kettle depressions in the morainal areas collect local surface wter runoff and act as local infiltration basins replenishing groundwater supplies.

Groundwater discharges generally occurs along lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The closest discharge areas to the site are wetland areas to the southeast. A major discharge area for groundwater flowing beneath the site appears to be the Tomorrow River, located several miles to the east The closest well to the landfill site is approximately 1, feet to the north upgradient.

The closest downgradient well is approximately 1, feet to the southeast Although high capacity irrigation wells are common in the area, there are none in the immediate vacinity of the site due to the irregular topography i.

The next nearest high capacity well is 2 miles northwest of the site. Neither will is expected to affect grcundwater flow at the site or to be affected by the site. The only on-site surface waters are the areas of ponded waters within the kettle depressions. Several small wetlands occur to the east of the site area. These wastes include, but are not limited to, garbage, refuse, wood matter, and demolition waste.

The site has an approximate year life, with a total refuse capacity of approximately 1,, yd3. The quantity of wastes presently in place was not specified. The site receives no liquid wastes or hazardous wastes. Clay used for constructing the liner is obtained from an off-site source.

The clay soil is required to have at least 50 percent material finer than a No. The layout of the leachate collection system is shown in Figure 3. Collected leachate is hauled to the Sewage Treatment Plant for treatment and disposal. Runon and runoff at the site are controlled by a perimeter drainage flume which discharges to infiltration basins. Rainfall which falls in the active area of the site is captured by the leachate collection system. The feasibility study report for the site describes the installation of a passive gas venting system.

This system is to be installed in gravel trenches which will be constructed in the upper reaches of the landfill prior to closure. No details of the gas venting system were available. The site design also includes the construction of a collection lysimeter beneath the Phase I liner. The lysimeter consists of a perforated PVC pipe installed in a trench lined with a synthetic membrane. The collection pipe drains to a manhole where leachate is collected. The purpose of the collection lysimeter is to measurei the volume of leachate which passes through the day liner.

The facility will be developed in 4 phases using the area fill method of disposal. The layout of the phases is shown in Figure 4. Phases I through III will have refuse capacities of ,; ; and , yd3, respectively. These phases will have an average fill thickness of approximately 34 feet and a maximum thickness of approximately 60 feet The base of the fill will range from approximately 30 feet below existing grade to approximately 30 feet above existing grade, depending on topography.

Phase IV will cover the entire site area and will be emplaced above the first three phases. Phase IV will have a refuse capacity of , yd3 and an average thickness of approximately 10 feet Refuse will be compacted daily and covered with 6 inches of daily cover. Because of the phased operation, Phase I through III will be covered with an intermediate cover consisting of 2 feet of compacted day and 6 inches of topsoil.

This intermediate cover will then be removed progressively as Phase IV is constructed. The final site grade is shown in Figure 5.

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